The liberalisation of trade pursued by the European Union (EU) under the European Single Market (ESM) facilitates the development of trade based on market principles where partners mutually profit from trade instead of one gaining and the other losing. This piece looks back at the fifteen years of Polish membership in the European Union to evaluate how the participation in the Single Market is changing the biggest economy to have joined the EU in the 21st century.
This study develops a quantitative analysis of the impact of the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA), as signed on 30 November 2018. The CUSMA represents a major overhaul of the now-dated 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and is based largely on the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) text, signed in 2016, from which the Trump administration withdrew in January 2017.
The new Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA) sets out rules of origin for auto products that need greater clarity to provide certainty for the businesses who must apply them, states a new report from the C.D. Howe Institute. In “Bumper to Bumper: Will the CUSMA Rules of Origin Make America’s Auto Industry Great Again?” Jon R. Johnson, a former advisor to the Canadian government during the NAFTA negotiations, takes a deep dive into the arcane rules of origin that will determine whether a good is eligible for duty-free treatment and finds they are still unclear in many cases, more stringent than those in NAFTA, and needlessly complex.
This paper presents how the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) has evolved as an institution, the changes it has undergone, and the challenges it has faced for the past decades. More importantly, this paper tries to enumerate the roles of APEC in positioning the Philippines in the global economy.
The Trump administration has pursued a sharply different – and for its trade partners unsettling – trade policy from that followed by all previous American administrations in the postwar period. While much attention has been focused on the oftentimes contradictory, oftentimes theoretically unfounded, and oftentimes undiplomatically aggressive manner in which that policy has been implemented, Dan Ciuriak argues the policy contains a coherent if not necessarily desirable or achievable vision for the US economy. Furthermore, he reviews how this policy is implemented in the USMCA, and on the implications of the agreement for the future of the North American economies – as distinct from the North American economy as a whole.
As parties to the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), Canada and Mexico have agreed to adopt important intellectual property protections for biologic medicines. Most significantly, both countries have agreed to increase the term of regulatory data protection (RDP) for new biologic medicines to ten years, thereby approaching the 12 years provided by the United States. Currently, Canada provides an eight-year term, while Mexico offers no protection.
Following a long period of unprecedented growth in international trade, the world trading system is currently facing considerable headwinds.
This study discusses pros and cons of the Swedish international investment agreements from an economic perspective. It concludes that the older Swedish bilateral agreements should be revised to ensure that they do not provide more protection in Sweden to investment from partner countries, than is available to investment from non partner countries or to Swedish domestic investment.
In particular, this paper focuses on Chapter 20 of USMCA, which contains the intellectual property (IP) provisions. Vocal critics in Canada have claimed that Chapter 20 will add billions of dollars to our health care costs, limit creativity, and unfairly constrain online platforms. The paper addresses each of these.
Amid United States Trade Representative (USTR) opaqueness and a lack of details in recent congressional testimony, the Trump Administration’s 2020 budget proposal, released in March, provides some indications about what to expect following two years of tumultuous American trade policy.