The exhaustion of globalization has increased steadily in recent years. The Covid-19 shock reached the world at the previous height of the systemic conflict between Chinese state capitalism and the increasingly divided transatlantic West. The European Union is largely sluggish in its response. In Europe, on the other hand, the nation-state hierarchies show themselves to be able to act.
Trade agreements—whether multilateral ones through the WTO, plurilateral ones such as the CPTPP, or bilateral agreements between two nations—represent the foundational vehicle through which nations remove trade barriers and deepen trade linkages. This category includes a wide array of GTIPA-member reports examining trade agreements their nations have implemented.