Technological innovation is essential to achieve sustainable growth for the frontier economies, including Western Europe, Japan, and the US. It is often argued that innovation is enhanced by collaboration between industry, research, and government. Sweden spends roughly SEK 3 billion each year on publicly funded innovation aid with some form of collaboration requirements. The Swedish government has also initiated an innovation council with representatives from the government, industry, academia, and other parts of society to foster collaboration.
We have studied the impact of governmental innovation aid with collaboration requirements. The report gathers the existing evidence from research and evaluations about the effects of innovation support with demands for collaboration and addresses the following questions:
- Does collaboration lead to increased innovation, competitiveness, and growth?
- How should innovation aid programs with collaboration requirements be organized and implemented for effectiveness and efficiency?