The general picture emerging from a cross-analysis of the facts and data presented in the report confirms once more the marked contradictions characterising the development paths of the African continent and its endeavouring to meet the challenges to ensure a balanced wellbeing for its people and for the whole planet. Population growth is one of the main challenges for the African continent’s future. Thanks to an increase in life expectancy and the high fertility rates, Africa will more than double its population in the next 35 years, increasing from 1.2 billion people in 2015 to 2.5 billion in 2050. This is the highest population growth among the different world regions. Three out of the top ten populated countries in the world will be from Sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo and Ethiopia). Today, only Nigeria is in the top end of this list. It is striking to notice that Nigeria alone is expected to reach almost 400 million inhabitants by 2050, the same number as the United States and slightly less than the pre-Brexit EU28.